Pd 103
17.0 d
ε
γ (757...)
m

Chemical properties

Pd-103 belongs to the platinum group elements and is either in metallic form or divalent in compounds. Palladium in metallic form is difficult to dissolve, but aqua regia can do it and will yield a strong orange-red solution.

Nuclear properties

Pd-103 decays by electron capture decay with a half-life of 17.0 days to isomeric Rh-103m that decays in turn with 56.11 min half-life to the stable ground state of Rh-103.

Pd-103 in equilibrium with its daughter Rh-103m emits X-rays, notably Kα at ≈20 keV (64.9(14)%) and Kβ at ≈23 keV (12.0(2) %). Pd-103/Rh-103m emit only very weak γ-rays, namely at 39.7 keV (0.07%) and 357.5 keV (0.022%) plus still weaker ones .

The mean photon energy per Pd-103 decay in equilibrium with Rh-103m is 16 keV and the mean electron energy emitted per decay is 40 keV. Most of these electrons are short-range Auger and conversion electrons with <0.3 µm, <7 µm and <27 µm range respectively.

The mean photon energy per Rh-103m decay alone is 1.7 keV and the mean electron energy emitted per decay is 38 keV. All its electrons are short-range Auger and conversion electrons with <0.3 µm, <7 µm and <27 µm range respectively.

Pd-103 is mainly used in brachytherapy sources exploiting its X-ray emission, while Rh-103m has been proposed as therapeutic Auger electron emitter. Due to its very low photon-to-electron ratio, Rh-103m has been recommended for targeted therapy of small tumors .

Production

Pd-103 is produced by neutron irradiation of enriched Pd-102 targets at ILL in Grenoble. Dissolution and purification are performed at Hevesy Laboratory at DTU.

Distribution

Activity will be shipped from Hevesy Laboratory (DTU, Risø, Denmark) to the users in form of PdCl2 solution or dried.

Examples of use

  • Pd-103/Rh-103m generators have been developed , .
  • Chelators for Pd-103 or Rh-103m respectively have been developed , .
  • [Pd-103]AuPd alloy nanoparticles embedded in gel-forming liquids have been tested preclinically .
  • Complexes suitable for radiotherapeutic applications of Rh-105 could also be applied for Rh-103m , .

Purity grades available

research

No carrier added (n.c.a.)

No
ParameterSpecifications
Production routePd-102(n,γ)Pd-103
DaughterDecays by 100% EC, mainly to isomeric Rh-103m (56.1 min half-life) that decays to stable Rh-103g
Half-life17.0 d
Processing1-step ion exchange chromatography to remove Ag-111 impurities
Primary Container2.5 mL borosilicate glass V-vial with silicon rubber screw cap
Product Graden.c.a.
Physical FormLiquid
Chemical FormPd2+ ion in 0.1 M HCl solution (1-2 ml)
Radioactive Concentration (gamma spectrometry)~GBq/ml
AppearanceClear colourless solution
Radionuclide identification (gamma spectrometry)40 keV gamma line and X-rays present
Radionuclidic Purity (gamma spectrometry)>99.9%
Chemical purity (ICP-OES)t.b.d.
Molar activity (ICP-OES)Typically > 0.1 GBq/µmol Pd at End Of Chemistry
Apparent Molar Activityt.b.d.
Microbiological qualityBioburden and endotoxin burden can be analysed post release, upon request
Bacterial endotoxinBioburden and endotoxin burden can be analysed post release, upon request
pH (pH strips)Depends on chemical form
Additional information
Activity availableFew GBq, few times per year (planning in advance)
Activity limit for UN2910 (excepted package) shipment0.6 GBq in dry state or 60 MBq in liquid form
Other information

Applications

  • Generator

Point of supply

  • Risø, Denmark

Involved production facilities

DTU, Denmark