Ac 225
9.9 d
α 5,830, 5,797...
γ 100, (150...)
e-

Chemical properties

Ac-225 is an actinide most often in trivalent state and chemically has analogies with the lanthanide series. The ionic radius of Ac3+ is 112 pm, suitable for many macrocyclic chelators used with other trivalent metallic ions, in particular DOTA.

Nuclear properties

Ac-225 decays by ɑ decay with a half-life of 9.918(3) days . Its decay chain involving Fr-221 (T1/2 = 4.8 min), At-217 (T1/2 = 32 ms), Bi-213 (T1/2 = 0.76 h), Po-213 (T1/2 = 3.7 µs) and Pb-209 (T1/2 = 3.2 h) leads to Bi-209. Including its short-lived decay chain, the cumulative ɑ emission is 400% per Ac-225 decay with an average ɑ energy of 6.88 MeV.

Ac-225 emits X-rays and γ-rays, notably 2.4% around 100 keV (+/-5%), its daughter Fr-221 emits γ-rays at 218.0 keV (11.44%) and its grand-grand-daughter Bi-213 γ-rays at 440.5 keV (25.94(15)%). These γ-rays enable SPECT-imaging with high energy collimators .

Production

Ac-225 is produced at JRC Karlsruhe by elution from Th-229 generators . Ac-225 is also produced by high energy proton induced spallation of thorium targets at MEDICIS at CERN. An off-line mass separation is performed at the production facility MEDICIS at CERN. The mass-separated ions are implanted into a solid matrix, e.g. a NaCl layer on a noble metal backing. Ra-225 is co-implanted at significant levels, while the co-produced Ac-227 is removed by the mass separation process. The implanted layer can be dissolved and used directly, but an additional radiochemical separation is used to obtain optimum radionuclidic purity.

Distribution

Radiochemical separations are performed at the production facility JRC Karlsruhe (JRC, Karlsruhe, International). Activity will be shipped from there to the users in dry form.

Examples of use

  • Mass-separated Ac-225 produced at CERN has been used in preclinical studies since over 25 years .
  • Ac-225 labelled to antibodies or peptides has been used and is being used in several clinical trials and early clinical phases .

Purity grades available

preclinical
GLP

No carrier added (n.c.a.)

Yes
ParameterSpecifications
Production routeTh-229→Ra-225→Ac-225 or Th-232(p,spallation)
DaughterDecay chain involving radioactive Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Po-213, Pb-209 leading to quasi-stable Bi-209: cumulative 400% α, 200% β-
Half-life9.92 d
Processing2-step purification process (cation exchange and extraction chromatography) or off-line mass separation
Primary Container2.5 mL borosilicate glass V-vial with silicon rubber screw cap
Product GradeGLP (JRC) or preclinical (MEDICIS), n.c.a.
Physical FormSolid
Chemical FormDried nitric or chloridic form (JRC) or implanted into NaCl film (MEDICIS)
Radioactive Concentration (gamma spectrometry)n.a.
AppearanceDried solid (JRC) or thin NaCl layer on Au foil (MEDICIS CERN)
Radionuclide identification (gamma spectrometry)100 keV (Ac-225), 218 keV (Fr-221) and 440 keV (Bi-213) gamma lines present
Radionuclidic Purity (gamma spectrometry)JRC Karlsruhe: >99.98%; U-233/Th-229 < 90 ppm (limit of detection), Ra-225 < 20 ppm (limit of detection)
(Fr-221, At-217, Bi-213, Po-213, Pb-209 not considered)
MEDICIS CERN: t.b.d.
Chemical purity (ICP-OES)n.a.
Molar activity (ICP-OES)n.a.
Apparent Molar ActivityJRC Karlsruhe: e.g. up to 0.5 MBq/nmol (PSMA-617)
Microbiological qualitySterile
Bacterial endotoxinn.a.
pH (pH strips)n.a.
Additional information
Activity availableJRC: max. 1000 MBq reserved for clinical studies every two months upon request, smaller amounts on request; MEDICIS CERN: 25 MBq few times per year
Activity limit for UN2910 (excepted package) shipment6 MBq in dry state
Other information

Applications

  • α-therapy

Point of supply

  • Karlsruhe, Germany

Involved production facilities

JRC, International
CERN, International