Sc 47
3.35 d
β- 0.4, 0.6
γ 159

Chemical properties

Sc-47 is a rare earth, usually in trivalent state. It can be radiolabelled with macrocyclic chelators, in particular DOTA.The ionic radius is 74.5 pm.

Nuclear properties

Sc-47 decays by β- emission with a half-life of 3.3492(6) days to stable Ti-47. It emits a low energy β- spectrum with 162 keV average energy and 600 keV maximum energy. Emission of conversion and Auger electrons is negligible (<1%).

Moreover, Sc-47 emits γ-rays at 159.4 keV (68.3%) suitable for SPECT-imaging.

The mean electron energy emitted per decay is 162 keV, the mean photon energy per decay is 109 keV .


Sc-47 is produced indirectly by thermal neutron irradiation of enriched Ca-46 oxide or carbonate targets in the research reactors of the PRISMAP network: RHF at ILL, BR2 at SCK CEN and MARIA at NCBJ. The Ca-47 (T1/2=4.54 d) produced upon neutron capture decays to Sc-47 via β-minus decay and serves as a generator, allowing several subsequent elutions of Sc-47 . With respect to other production pathways of Sc-47, this production scheme provides optimum radionuclidic purity .


The radiochemical separations are performed at POLATOM (NCBJ, Otwock-Swierk, Poland). Activity will be shipped from there to the users in form of ScCl3 solution, ready for labelling of e.g. DOTA-compounds.

Examples of use

  • See for dosimetric calculations of Sc-47 in comparison to other β-minus emitters.
  • Preclinicial bone scintigraphy with Sc-47 had been reported long ago .
  • The preclinical SPECT imaging capabilities of Sc-47 have been demonstrated .
  • The therapeutic efficacy of Sc-47-DOTA-folate has been compared preclinically with Lu-177-DOTA-folate and Y-90-DOTA-folate .
  • Different Sc-47 labelled PSMA-ligands have been tested preclinically .

Purity grades available


No carrier added (n.c.a.)

Production routeCa-46(n,γ)Ca-47(β-)Sc-47
DaughterDecays to stable Ti-47: 100% β-
Half-life3.35 d
Processing2-step column separation
Primary Container2.5 mL borosilicate glass V-vial with silicon rubber screw cap
Product Graden.c.a.
Physical FormLiquid
Chemical FormIn 0.05 M HCl or 4.85 M NaCl /0.13 M HCl
Radioactive Concentration (gamma spectrometry)n.a.
AppearanceClear colourless solution
Radionuclide identification (gamma spectrometry)159 keV gamma line present
Radionuclidic Purity (gamma spectrometry)> 99.95% (< 0.005% Sc-46)
Chemical purity (ICP-OES)n.a.
Molar activity (ICP-OES)n.a.
Apparent Molar ActivityLabelling up to 10-25 MBq/nmol DOTANOC (>96%) or ≈10 MBq/nmol DOTATATE (>95%)
Microbiological qualityn.a.
Bacterial endotoxinn.a.
pH (pH strips)Depends on chemical form
Additional information
Activity availableUp to 500 MBq few times per year (planning in advance), depends on reactor schedules
Activity limit for UN2910 (excepted package) shipment0.7 GBq in dry state or 70 MBq in liquid form
Other information


  • β-therapy

Point of supply

  • Otwock-Swierk, Poland

Involved production facilities

SCK CEN, Belgium
ILL, France
NCBJ, Poland