Sc 44
4.0 h
β+ 1.5
γ 1157

Chemical properties

Sc-44 is a rare earth, usually in trivalent state. It can be radiolabelled with macrocyclic chelators, e.g. DOTA or other chelators such as NODAGA, AAZTA, pypa, mpatcn, etc. . The ionic radius is 74.5 pm.

Nuclear properties

Sc-44 decays by beta-plus emission (94.27(5)%) and electron capture (5.73%) with a half-life of 4.042(25) hours to stable Ca-44. It emits a medium energy positron spectrum with 632 keV average energy and 1474 keV maximum energy.

Moreover, Sc-44 emits a hard gamma-ray at 1157.0 keV (99.9%) in prompt coincidence (T1/2=2.7 ps) with every emitted positron.

The mean electron energy emitted per decay is 596 keV, the mean photon energy per decay is 2136 keV .


Sc-44 is produced by proton irradiation of enriched Ca-44 oxide (or carbonate targets) at: Injector 2 at PSI  or C30 cyclotron at NCBJ. ARRONAX uses instead deuteron irradiation .


The radiochemical separations are performed at ARRONAX (ARRONAX, Nantes, France), PSI Radiochemistry Laboratory (PSI, Villigen, Switzerland) or POLATOM (NCBJ, Otwock-Swierk, Poland). Activity will be shipped from there to the users in form of ScCl3 (or acetate) solution, ready for labelling of e.g. DOTA-compounds.

Examples of use

  • Sc-44 has been evaluated preclinically with peptides, PSMA ligands, affibodies and monoclonal antibodies .
  • Settings of commercial activity meters have been evaluated with Sc-44 .
  • The preclinical PET imaging performance of Sc-44 has been compared to other positron emitters .
  • The impact of the prompt gamma ray emission on quantification with preclinical and clinical scanners has been evaluated .
  • First-in-human applications of Sc-44-DOTATOC and Sc-44-PSMA respectively have been reported with clinical PET/CT imaging up to 23.5 h post injection .
  • Sc-44-PSMA PET/CT imaging is considered useful to evaluate maximum permissible activity in Lu-177-PSMA therapy .
  • Sc-44 is considered the prime candidate for 3γ-imaging, also called γ-PET .
  • Sc-44 is also considered the prime candidate for ortho-positronium mean lifetime imaging .

Purity grades available


No carrier added (n.c.a.)

Half-life4.04 h
DaughterStable Ca-44
Branching Ratio/Decay94.3% β+, 5.7% EC
ProductionCa-44(p,n)Sc-44 [or Ca-44(d,2n)Sc-44 at ARRONAX]
Purification1 or 2 steps column separation
Chemical FormIn 0.05 M HCl, 0.1 M HCl, 4.85 M NaCl/0.13 M HCl or 1 M NaOAc
Specific Activity2 GBq/mg
Radionuclidic Purity99.8% (0.2% Sc-44m)
Radiochemical PurityLabelling up to 25 MBq/nmol DOTANOC or DOTATATE
Identification1157 keV gamma line present
AppearanceClear and colourless solution
pHDepends on chemical form
Activity availableUp to 1 GBq
AvailabilityOn demand
GradeResearch grade or preclinical grade, n.c.a.


  • PET

Point of supply

  • Nantes, France
  • Villigen, Switzerland
  • Otwock-Swierk, Poland

Involved production facilities

PSI, Switzerland
NCBJ, Poland